An Appraisal of the Colombia DDR Process in Light of the Revised Peace Agreement between the Government and the FARC

  • Francesca Capone Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna

Resumen

After more than four years of negotiations the Colombian Government and the FARC have reached a historical peace agreement, signed on 26 September 2016 and, in a shocking turn of events, ultimately rejected in an up-or-down referendum held on 2 October 2016. Only 41 days after the plebiscite the two parties have revised the original deal and submitted a new version to the Congress, which approved it on 30 November 2016. The deal, upon which relies the possibility to finally achieve a stable and lasting peace, covers several crucial issues, including what will happen to the FARC rebels once the armed conflict is officially over.

The establishment of an effective DDR process is an essential step to ensure that FARC members will meaningfully transition into civilian life and it represents one of the most controversial aspects of the peace agreement. Moving from the assumption that DDR programmes are not stand alone mechanisms, but fall within a broader framework that covers a number of important and intimately entwined aspects, like the issue of accountability and the rights of victims, the present article, after looking at Colombia’s past attempts to reintegrate former combatants, aims at discussing the DDR process envisaged in the current peace deal, highlighting its main strengths and shortcoming.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Francesca Capone, Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna

Doctor in Law of the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Licensed in Law of the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Main Investigator and coordinator of the Mastery in Human Law and Management of Conflicts in the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy. Senior Research Fellow in Public International Law. Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna. Contact: f.capone@santannapisa.it

Referencias bibliográficas

Alice Diver, J. M. (2016). Introduction: An Overview of the Current Situation in Colombia. In Justiciability of Human Rights Law in Domestic Jurisdictions (p. 198). New York: Springer Cham Heidelberg.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24016-9

Alsema, A. (2016, noviembre 5). Colombia's political parties less popular than FARC guerrillas: Gallup. Colombia Reports.

Alto comisionado para la paz. (s.f.). Funcionamiento de las Zonas Veredales Transitorias de Normalización (ZVTN) y los Puntos Transitorios de Normalización (PTN). Bogotá.

Alto comisionado para la paz. (2016). Final agreement to end the armed conflict and build a stable and lasting peace.

Banholzer, L. (2014). When Do Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programmes Succeed? Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik gGmbH.

https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2367307

BBC News. (2016, November 24). Who are the Farc? BBC News.

Binder, C. (2011). The Prohibition of Amnesties by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. German Law Journal, 12, 1203-1230.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S2071832200017272

Bonacker, T. S. (2013). Victims of International Crimes: An Interdisciplinary Discourse. Springer.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-6704-912-2

Brodzinsky, S. (2016, October 3). Colombia referendum: voters reject peace deal with Farc guerrillas. The Guardian.

Capone, F. (2016). Children in Colombia: Discussing the Current Transitional Justice Process against the Backdrop of the CRC Key Principles. In J. M. Alice Diver, Justiciability of Human Rights Law in Domestic Jurisdictions (p. 198). New York: Springer.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24016-9_9

Centro Nacional de Memoria Historical. (2013, Julio 18). Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica. Retrieved from http://www.centrodememoriahistorica.gov.co/en/about-the-national-center-about-the-national-center/content/60-english-version

Colombia peace. (2017, April 18). Colombia peace. Retrieved from http://colombiapeace.org/2017/04/18/alvaro-uribes-questionable-message-to-u-s-authorities-about-co-lombias-peace-effort/

Colombia: The justice and pace law. (2016). The center for Justice and peace law. Retrieved from http://cja.org/where-we-work/colombia/related-resources/colombia-the-justice-and-peace-law/

Davis, C., & Trinkunas, H. (24, March 24). Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2016/03/24/the-colombian-peace-process-deadline-passes-with-no-accord-whats-next/

De Greiff, P. (2010). Research Brief, Establishing Links between DDR and Reparations, ICTJ. Available at: http://ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-DDR-Reparations-Re-searchBrief-2010-English.pdf

El Tiempo. (2016, Diciembre 5). Todo listo para el inicio de la concentración de las Farc. El Tiempo.

Fleck, D. (2013). The Law of Non-International Armed Conflict (p. 609). In Fleck, D. (Ed.). The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Garcia,J.,&AndreasLid,K.(2010,September1).JournalofLatinAmericanStudies.Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-latin-american-stud-ies/article/transitional-justice-and-victims-rights-before-the-end-of-a-conflict-the-unusual-case-of-colombia/29C196E8C4A1AB34FAFBA9A4975F7912

Harbom, L., Hogbladh, S., & Wallenstein, P. (2006, September 1). Sage Journal. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022343306067613

Human Rights Watch. (2010). WORLD REPORT. New York: Copyright.

Human Rights watch. (2015, September 28). Human Rights watch. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/28/colombia-dealing-away-justice

Internal Displacement Updates. (2012, Agosto 23). Internal Displacement Updates. Retrieved from http://www.internal-displacement.org/

International Crisis Group (ICG). (2016, September 7). Colombia's Final Steps to the End of War. Colombia. Retrieved from http://www.refworld.org/docid/57d2a7744.html

Kemper, Y., Roshani, N. & Bonilla Portilla, M. (2012). No One to Trust: Children and Armed Conflict in Colombia, Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict. Available at: http://watchlist.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Watchlist-ColombiaReport-LR.pdf

Lee, C. (2012). The FARC and the Colombian Left Time for a Political Solution?. Latin American Perspectives, 39, 28-42.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X11423227

Legal, F. p. (2010). Las víctimas y la justicia transicional. Washington, DC: Fundación para el Debido Proceso Legal.

Ley de amnistía, indulto y tratamientos penales especiales (anexos I Y II del Acuerdo Especial 19 de agosto de 2016). (2016). Acuerdo Final para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera: 13. Bogotá.

Mallinder, L. (2016). The End of Amnesty or Regional Overreach? Interpreting the Erosion of South America's Amnesty Laws. ICLQ, 65, 645-680.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589316000166

McDermott, J. (2016, Noviembre 14). Colombia Has a New Peace Deal, But Challenges Remain. Insight Crime.

Moreno, M. C. (2014, December 8). ICTJ. Retrieved from https://www.ictj.org/news/uncovering-colombia-systems-macro-criminality

Nezam, T. & Marc, A. (2009). Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, note commissioned by the World Bank's Department of Social Development, 119.

Oficina de Alto Comisionado para la Paz. (2016, Noviembre 12). Oficina de Alto Comis- ionado para la Paz. Retrieved from http://www.altocomisionadoparalapaz.gov.co/prensa/Paginas/2017/Mayo/El-Acuerdo-de-paz-en-ingles.aspx

Roht-Arriaza, N., & Orlofsky, K. (2009). A Complementary Relationship: Reparations and Development.

The Atlantic. (2016, August 25). A Peace Deal for Colombia. The Atlantic.

The Economist. (2016, junio 25). The government declares an end to its war against the FARC. The Economist.

Theidon, K. (2007, Marzo 1). Transitional Justice. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/ijtj/article-abstract/1/1/66/2356776/Transitional-Subjects-The-DisarmamentredirectedFrom=fulltext

https://doi.org/10.1093/ijtj/ijm011

Theydon, K. (2009). Reconstructing Masculinities: The Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Colombia. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

https://doi.org/10.1353/hrq.0.0053

Transitional Justice in Colombia. (Junio). Justice and Peace Law: an experience of truth, justice and reparation. Review Conference of the Rome Statute, (p. 2010).

Valasek, K. (2008). Security Sector Reform and Gender. Keystone: Cover picture.

Woody, C. (2015, November 7). Business Insider. Retrieved from http://uk.businessinsid-er.com/colombia-palace-of-justice-siege-2015-11?r=US&IR=T.

Publicado
2017-06-01
Cómo citar
Capone, F. (2017). An Appraisal of the Colombia DDR Process in Light of the Revised Peace Agreement between the Government and the FARC. Estudios En Seguridad Y Defensa, 12(23), 19-38. https://doi.org/10.25062/1900-8325.238
Sección
Artículos